- Native to Europe.
- Biennial or short lived perennial.
- Blue flowers on upper part of stalk.
- Small stiff hairs on stem and leaves.
- Grows in dry, rocky and/or shallow soils.
- Found in the Creston, Nakusp, Kaslo, Whatshan and Powder Creek areas.
Consequences of invasion
- Invades rangelands and pastures, impacting livestock.
- Contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids, which can be toxic to horses and cattle when ingested.
- Seeds can contaminate clover and other crop seeds.
- Host for plant diseases including alfalfa mosaic virus and tobacco mosaic virus.
- Seeds can remain viable for up to 36 months depending on conditions.
Integrated Pest Management Options
- Pull or dig when soil is moist to control small infestations.
- Proper pasture and rangeland management practices like minimizing soil disturbance and overgrazing.
- Chemical control may work on larger infestations.